# Maestría en Ingeniería - Énfasis en Ingeniería Electrónica

URI permanente para esta colecciónhttp://hdl.handle.net/11349/22259

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Ítem Caracterización de la Reacción de la captura neutrónica por gadolinioTellez Ardila, Diego Alexander; Munévar Espitia, Edwin; Leyva Rojas, José Alfonso; Munévar Espitia, Edwin [0000-0002-0578-7717]The nuclear reaction of neutron capture by the isotope 157-Gadolinium (GdNC, for its English acronym) has garnered increasing interest in recent years due to its applications both on an industrial level in the development of neutron detectors and on a medical level as therapy for tumor treatment. Its use in medical applications is presented as an alternative to conventional treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy, given its property of minimizing damage through irradiation to healthy tissues. This property is a consequence of the high linear energy transfer (LET, for its English acronym) exhibited by some particles in the final state of the associated nuclear reaction, limiting their range to the cellular diameter. The final state of GdNC involves complex processes at both the nuclear level (emission of gammas and internal conversion electrons) and the atomic level (emission of X-rays and Auger electrons) that need to be studied both experimentally and through simulation to advance the understanding of the reaction. Although there are some published works on the GdNC reaction, there is no consensus among them regarding the kinetic energy and the average number of particles produced per event (yield). Moreover, these works often neglect the analysis of other kinematic and dosimetric quantities that could contribute to improving the understanding of the nuclear reaction's characteristics. The main objective of this research work is to characterize the particles in the final state of the neutron capture reaction by the isotope 157-Gadolinium by determining physical quantities such as the distribution of kinetic energy, momentum distribution, angular distribution, deposited energy, and linear energy transfer (LET). To achieve this, a simulation based on the Monte Carlo method using Geant4 will be carried out. In this simulation, an enriched target of 157-Gadolinium surrounded by an aqueous medium will be irradiated with a neutron beam having an epithermal and thermal energy range.Ítem Modelo numérico de la respuesta óptica de una nanopartícula polimérica sumergida en un medio acuosoPuentes Ossa, Agni Myleidy; Rodríguez Patarroyo, Diego JulíanThis paper presents the results of a numerical model that allows the separation of the absorption and scattering spectra of light interacting with polymeric nanoparticles, manufactured to be used in the transport and release of drugs in the treatment of cancer-related pathologies. Data from the characteristic spectra of nanoparticles synthesized by the reprecipitation method manufactured by Ramos and collaborators were used. These nanoparticles are found in an aqueous medium and when interacting with electromagnetic radiation, two basic processes occur: absorption and scattering. Separating both parts of the spectrum is necessary to understand the optical response of the nanoparticles and thus determine the extinct radiation that is presented as an artifact in the absorption spectra generated experimentally. Likewise, the numerical model proposed here is contrasted with experimental data obtained from nanoparticles fabricated by the reprecipitation technique.Ítem Modelo y simulación de la dinámica del actuador elástico serie de un pie protésico tipo ESARGiraldo Ramos, Frank Nixon; Camargo Casallas, Esperanza; Giraldo Ramos, Frank Nixon [0000-0001-8407-1831]In this document, the study and development of a model that determines the dynamic system for a motorized series elastic actuator of an energy storage and return (ESAR) prosthetic foot is proposed. With a view to applying a control algorithm, which is based on state observers, as a paradigm that seeks to improve the validation of its performance in this type of actuators for ankle-foot prostheses as well as to increase the robustness of the control with respect to disturbances. In the results achieved, the dynamic model is presented along with its parameterization to obtain the state representation from the transfer function model, to apply the conventional PID and state observer control strategies, to finally validate the performance of each strategy regarding its reaction to disturbances, verifying the contribution of strategies based on state observer for the control of SEA actuators in prosthesis applications.Ítem Diseño preliminar de un prototipo de un acelerador de iones ligeros para BNCT.Diaz Gómez, Víctor Alfonso; Munévar Espitia, Edwin; Leyva Rojas, José Alfonso; Munévar Espitia, Edwin; Munévar Espitia, Edwin [0000-0002-0578-7717]Currently, the use of medium- and low-energy particle accelerators has been extended to basic research laboratories in materials science, biomedical sciences, among others, and in terms of applications the main ones are in the generation of particle beams for imaging and therapy in different areas of medicine; in the industry they are in the characterization and optimization of materials. In this work, the physical foundations of linear accelerators have been studied, in particular different geometries and configurations of the electrodes for the acceleration system. A specific design was chosen in terms of configuration and geometry of electrodes, for its optimization through computational modeling of the acceleration system. Finally, a preliminary design for a compact linear acceleration column is obtained. Through a combination of experimental data taking and computational modeling, with the help of MATLAB-type calculation platforms, we study the equipotential lines, electric field vectors, and field lines to establish the different trajectories to be followed by deuterium ions, for the particular acceleration lines, given the different configurations and geometries of the electrodes that make up the accelerator column. To model the flow and acceleration of deuterium ions in an accelerating column. The purpose of this work is to determine whether the plasma meniscus and the beam interface can be properly modeled with MATLAB R2020a and thus, successfully predict the deuteron trajectory and beam shape over a wide range. Using MATLAB R2020a and based on experimental measurements of the electrostatic potential for a specific configuration and geometry of the accelerator column electrodes, a matrix of 6000 data characterized in electrostatic potential in 2d, i.e., V = V (x, y) was measured, which was taken as a basis to solve for the electric field: E = −∇V, using a central difference algorithm that allows one to find point by point each component of the electric field (Ex, Ey). Based on the above, we characterized the accelerating column in terms of the equipotential lines and the E field vector in the three acceleration zones, the trajectory of the particles (deuterons) accelerated in the extraction zone, the deuteron motion in the saturation zone, the kinetic energy of the ionized deuterium beam, and a 3D design based on the different columns studied. From the results obtained in this investigation, it is verified that the selected column and its electrode configuration fulfills the conditions to be used in medical application of BNCT. The column is characterized and the blueprint and three-dimensional designs are finally obtained, describing each of its parts and materials for its future construction.Ítem Modelo bio-inspirado para la aproximación de nacimiento por cesáreaPacheco Fandiño, Jennifer Vivian; Camargo Casallas, Luz Helena; Gaona Barrera, Andrés EduardoCesarean delivery is one of the causes of maternal mortality with the highest percentage, in Colombia for 2021 it was 46.4%. To mitigate this, health professionals monitor pregnant women; however, the density of information and the volume of patients make it difficult to consider their symptoms in detail. Taking into account a public database that contains demographic information of 45 pregnant women and the recording of the electrohystereogram (EHG) biosignal, which is a non-invasive technique that represents the electrical activity of the cells of the uterus. A bio-inspired model is developed implementing the classifiers: K Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Deep Learning (DP), to process data sets with demographic information, characteristics of the EHG biosignal, and their combination. Finally, the bio-inspired model is evaluated by calculating the performance indices: sensitivity, specificity and precision. The best performance in the analysis of demographic data is obtained with: KNN where the sensitivity is 100% and the specificity is greater than 80% together with SVM with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 83.3%. The classifiers with the highest performance in the analysis of the EHG biosignal are: MLP with a sensitivity of 82.3% and a specificity of 85.7%, followed by PD with a specificity of 72.8%. The percentages with the highest accuracy are found when considering only the demographic data or the EHG biosignal, in contrast to that obtained with the combined data. The bio-inspired model allows for 90% accuracy with demographic information and 90.9% with EHG information.Ítem Modelado numérico de la sección eficaz diferencial de dispersión entre una nanopartícula y un eritrocitoRiaño Rivera, Angela Johana; Rodríguez Patarroyo, Diego Julián; Rodríguez Patarroyo, Diego Julián [000-0002-4907-5674]Nanoparticles are widely used in imaging studies as contrast agents, as well as in cancer treatments for drug delivery and release in tumors and surrounding areas, and in hyperthermic therapies. When injected into the bloodstream, the main factor that reduces the efficiency of nanoparticles in therapies or treatments is their dispersion and migration towards vascular walls, primarily due to their interaction with blood components, with erythrocytes being the main scattering center. This paper proposes a numerical model for the collision kinetics between a nanoparticle and an erythrocyte, aiming to obtain the differential scattering cross-section. The viscoelastic characteristics of the erythrocyte membrane were emphasized to study the interaction within the collision interval using classical molecular dynamics. The kinetic and energetic behavior of the interaction was described considering the drag force exerted by the erythrocyte surface on the nanoparticle and the viscoelastic force associated with a nonlinear displacement of the nanoparticle. Additionally, an analytical model based on trajectory vectors before and after collision, associated with the position and velocity vectors of the nanoparticle, was proposed. This approach resulted in obtaining the scattering angle profiles and quantifying the differential scattering cross-section between the particle and the erythrocyte. The findings demonstrated that dispersion depends on the biconcave and symmetrical geometry of the erythrocyte, as well as the nanoparticle's kinetics.Ítem Diseño de un sistema de prevención del síndrome de túnel carpiano implementando redes neuronales artificialesBarragán Vargas, Diego Alejandro; Ferro Escobar, Roberto; Ferro Escobar, Roberto [0000-0002-8978-538X]In the present master's work with a line of research in bioengineering, the design of an electronic prevention system using artificial neural networks is presented in order to prevent carpal tunnel syndrome, taking into account various parameters such as the pressure and movement exerted In the dominant hand, which will be observed in the resistance variation by means of a piezoelectric element called velostat, other variables to take into account are the amplitude of the signal and the speed of conduction, which will be measured by means of a bracelet. which will be connected with a simple mobile application through bluetooth, the app will notify the user when it is time to change the activity or take a short break, in addition some questions of vital importance to the user will be taken into account in order to generate a database that feeds an artificial neural network, which will be in charge of analyzing the probability that the user may suffer from carpal tunnel syndrome, in order to generate a correct alert and in this way the risk of suffering from this condition can be decreased, it is important to highlight that the design will have a primary focus in the present literature and not in data collection. a general population, due to the pandemic currently experienced. The proposed electronic system will have robust information that will be acquired by means of the different variables to be measured through an electronic bracelet and piezoelectric sensors that will be on different objects and will measure the electrical behavior of the hand, in addition to the design of a Simple survey that will be formulated for the different patients to be measured, which will cover the degree of pain, mobility and numbness of the hand by scales, when carrying out the different activities proposed with the prevention system that will be exposed in this document.Ítem Modelo numérico de las trayectorias de las nanopartículas magnéticas en aproximación de un flujo no NewtonianoContreras Rodríguez, Israel Esteban; Camargo Casallas, Luz HelenaIn this work, the biophysical variables present in the distribution of nanopharmaceuticals in the circulatory system were studied, using the Casson model with which the behavior of blood as a colloid was described, assuming viscosity as a variable that depends on the gradient of speed, shear stress and temperature. For this, the physical factors present during the supply of the magnetic nanoparticles (NPMs) were related, such as: gravitational field, magnetic field, Stokes force, thrust force and drag force. Thus, a numerical model of the trajectory of these NPMs was developed with the intention of estimating their distribution in specific regions of the organism. From the equations of motion, a numerical model was developed that was computationally solved by means of the Euler-Chrome algorithm, which allowed a detailed analysis of the trajectory of said particles, thus building a database that feeds a neural network, by means of from which the behavior of the NPMs was estimated, for which artificial neural networks were implemented, such as the multilayer perceptron, with optimization algorithms in which the Levenberg Marquadt algorithm stands out. From the above, different trajectories of the NPMs in coronary arteries were estimated, including parameters such as time, the position in X and Y, the speed that the nanoparticles can reach. The architecture obtained with the artificial neural network, which contains the optimization algorithm [5 4 3 2], presented the best performance with a training MSE of 1.763E-07, validation uRMSE of 0.0049 and trend probabilities at X 0, 62 and 0.57 in Y.Ítem Modelado de la cinética de nanopartículas en el torrente sanguíneo bajo la influencia de un campo magnético externo.Roa Barrantes, Laura María; Rodríguez Patarroyo, Diego JuliánMagnetic drug targeting is a non-invasive biomedical technique for localized diseases treatment. This technique is based on the binding of the drug to the surface of nanoparticles with a magnetizable core, suspended in a liquid known as a ferrofluid, which is injected into the bloodstream and directed to the target region through external magnetic fields. In the present document, the kinetic behavior of a magnetic nanoparticle initially subjected to external magnetic fields is compared and, then four moments of the cardiac cycle are added to understand the dynamic effect due to blood pulsation. A blood vessel without bifurcations and radial symmetry of 100 micrometers in diameter with the pulsating flow and a magnetic nanoparticle of 100 nm radius, directed by external magnetic fields associated with a cylindrical neodymium magnet, is approached. Two forces are taken into account: the magnetic force on the nanoparticle and the drag force influenced by the velocity profiles of the blood flow, as well as the velocity of the same. The results show that the nanoparticles that fall under the influence of the magnetic field alter their trajectory by modifying the distance between the magnet and the center of the blood vessel, as well as the moment of the cardiac cycle in which the system is found.Ítem Modelo numérico de la cinética de particularistas magnéticas en flujo sanguíneo para tratamiento de Cáncer.Pantoja Benavides, Jaime Francisco; Roduiguez Patarroyo, Diego JulianNowadays, cancer is one of the most important morbidity and mortality factors in the world. For these reasons, efforts have been made to optimize the treatments that are used by specialists in the oncology area. One of the main difficulties is the lack of mathematical and statistical models that allow to characterize the performance of the treatments; one of these innovative treatment trends consists of the use of magnetic nanoparticles which are incorporated into the bloodstream either in order to diagnose or transport medications to the affected areas.Ítem Complementariedad de recursos solar, hídrico y eólico en las zonas rurales del departamento de CundinamarcaAldana Urrea, Angélica Vanessa; Rodríguez Patarroyo, Diego JulianThis research developed a methodological process based on energy demand and supply to determine the complementarity of solar, wind and water resources of Cundinamarca rural areas. The information used is based on CAR stations water supply, PERS Cundinamarca results of solar and wind supply and IDEAM and NASA records. A demand analysis was carried out including electrical coverage and a demand projections study results at 2031. The energy complementarity analysis started with the application of the Shapiro – Wilks Test to assess the normal distribution in the energy supply. Pearson's linear correlation coefficient was selected to evaluate the statistical correlation at the monitoring stations. It was applied the Ordinary Kriging method. It was generated statistical prediction maps which allowed to estimate the correlation factor at the sites without stations. Finally, an energy complementarity analysis was generated to look for the spatial variability of the region's resources to implement distributed generation. It was developed province correlation matrices where each station was evaluated on its energy resources against the other stations and associated energy resources. Those results showed that rural population energy needs should be focused on the installation of hybrid power generation systems that cover solar and water generation.